Scimex: Providing pregnant and postpartum women in sub-Saharan Africa with multiple HIV self-tests can make it more likely their male partners will be tested for HIV compared to a standard approach of distributing invitation cards for clinic-based testing, according to a randomized trial published in PLOS Medicine by Harsha Thirumurthy of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA, and colleagues.
Low use of testing services in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly by
men, is one of the key barriers to meeting targets that UNAIDS has set
for HIV prevention. Moreover, efforts to encourage pregnant women and
postpartum women to refer their partners for testing and to test as a
couple, in order to help prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV,
have had limited success. Between June and October 2015, Thirumurthy and
colleagues enrolled in their study 600 women seeking pregnancy and
postpartum care at three facilities in Kisumu County, Kenya. All women
enrolled were 18-39 years old, had a partner that was not known to be
HIV-positive, and agreed to participate. Half the women were given two
oral fluid-based HIV self-test kits to take home, instructions on use,
and were encouraged to give a test to their male partner or to test with
their partner if they felt comfortable. The other 300 women were given
invitation cards to give their partner for HIV testing at a clinic. Over
the following three months, women were followed up to determine if
their partner had self-tested or visited a clinic to test for HIV.
In the group that received HIV self-tests, 90.8 percent of partners
were reported to have tested within 3 months of enrollment in the study.
In the comparison group, 51.7 percent of partners were reported to have
visited a clinic for HIV testing. Based on these results, self-tests
led to 39.1% more partner testing than the control (95% confidence
interval 32.4% to 45.8%, P<0.001). Moreover, 93 percent of women who
had received the HIV self-tests said their partner found the test either
“very easy” or “somewhat easy” to use. Couples testing was also much
more likely among women who received HIV self-tests; 75.4% of women
given self-tests reported testing with their partner whereas only 33.2%
in the comparison group tested with their partner (difference=42.1%, 95%
confidence interval 34.7% to 49.6%, P<0.001). The study is limited,
however, by its reliance on self-reported outcomes as well as the fact
that roughly a third of women screened for participation in the trial
declined to participate, in some cases because they reported a fear of
violence that could result from offering a self-test to their partner.
“The promising results from this study suggest that secondary
distribution of self-tests warrants further consideration as countries
develop HIV self-testing policies and seek new ways to promote partner
and couples testing,” the authors say.