JAMA: Researchers estimate that 48.5 percent of the nearly 346,000 deaths from 12 cancers among adults 35 and older in 2011 were attributable to cigarette smoking, according to an article published online by JAMA Internal Medicine. Researcher Rebecca L. Siegel, M.P.H., of the American Cancer Society, Atlanta, and coauthors provide an updated estimate because they note smoking patterns and the magnitude of the association between smoking and cancer death have changed in the past decade.
prevalence decreased from 23.2 percent in 2000 to 18.1 percent in 2012,
some data suggest the risk of cancer death among smokers can increase
over time, according to background in the study.
The authors used data from the 2011 National Health Interview Survey,
the Cancer Prevention Study III and the pooled contemporary cohort. The
National Health Interview Survey provides smoking prevalence estimates
based on in-person interviews of a representative sample of U.S. adults
and the other data sources ascertained smoking from self-administered
questionnaires. The authors mention study limitations including that
study populations were less racially diverse and more educated than the
U.S. population and that tobacco exposures other than cigarettes were
not included in the analysis.
The study estimates that of 345,962 deaths there were 167,805
attributable to smoking cigarettes. The largest proportions of
smoking-attributable deaths were for cancers of the lung, bronchus and
trachea (125,799, 80.2 percent) and larynx (2,856, 76.6 percent). About
half of the deaths from cancers of the oral cavity, esophagus and
urinary bladder were attributable to smoking, according to the results,
which were reported in a research letter.
“Cigarette smoking continues to cause numerous deaths from multiple
cancers despite half a century of decreasing prevalence. … Continued
progress in reducing cancer mortality, as well as deaths from many other
serious diseases, will require more comprehensive tobacco control,
including targeted cessation support,” the study concludes.